While specific factions of Valenwood are not yet known, besides of course for the presence of the Aldmeri Dominion, the Bosmer of the province are divided into two different cultures.
Cosmopolitan Bosmer have been influenced by the centuries that Valenwood has passed as a subject of the various foreign empires. They have adapted to living in towns and cities, trading with other races, even moving abroad where the Green Pact does not apply. The Bosmer found in other provinces, such as Skyrim, are an example of this culture.
Tribal Bosmer have kept to the Old Way, living in the trees, zealously following the Green Pact, and aggressively shunning contact with outsiders.
In addition to Bosmer, Valenwood is also home to the Wood Orcs, a population of Orsimer who have lived in the forest since time immemorial, and are on some points similar to the Tribal Bosmer though they do not follow the Green Pact and do not hesitate to cut trees for lumber and firewood, a fact that has often put them at odd with the Wood Elves. Khajiit from nearby Elsweyr also have a strong presence in the province. Other Beastfolk that can be encountered in Valenwood include the mysterious Centaurs and the "ape-men" Imga.